تبلیغات
...:: گنجینه زبان من / My English Treasure::... - مطالب مهر 1389
...:: گنجینه زبان من / My English Treasure::...
مرجع آموزش زبان انگلیسی
Welcome to your English Cottage. We have been hard at work putting together a weblog to please all you visitors who have been waiting so patiently for things to come together in a perfect blog. Thanks for coming here! As you see, We've got the usual English materials: vocabulary, grammar, idiom, proverb, poem, short stories, speaking, article and much more but to add more, We invite you to post your fruitful materials here with your own name as a new author. We will be updating the weblog with new info as always as We can so keep coming back. This weblog is for all of you so I want to make sure you are fully satisfied, surely with your sweet comments. Enjoy learning English online!

If you want something or somebody very badly,

Set it free.

If it comes back to you,

It’s yours forever.

If it doesn’t,

It was never yours to begin with.





نوع مطلب : Beautiful sentences، 
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دوشنبه 26 مهر 1389
چاپ این صفحه

A

angry: "She was angry with her boss for criticising her work."

annoyed: "I'm very annoyed with him. He hasn't returned any of my calls."

"She was annoyed by his comments."

appalled = very shocked: "They were appalled to hear that they would lose their jobs."

apprehensive = slightly worried: "I felt a little apprehensive before my interview."

ashamed: "How could you say such a thing? You should be ashamed of yourself!"

at the end of your tether = completely fed up: "The children have been misbehaving all day - I'm at the end of my tether."

B

bewildered = very confused: "He was bewildered by the choice of computers in the shop."

betrayed = when someone breaks the trust you have in them: "He betrayed my trust when he repeated my secret to everyone."

C

confused: "I'm sorry I forgot your birthday - I was confused about the dates."

confident = sure of your abilities: "I'm confident that we can find a solution to this problem."

cheated = when you don't get something that you think you deserve: "Of course I feel cheated - I should have won that competition."

cross = quite angry: "I was cross with him for not helping me, as he said he would."

D

depressed = very sad: "After he failed his English exam, he was depressed for a week."

delighted = very happy: "I'm delighted that I got the job. It's just what I always wanted."

down in the dumps = sad and fed up: "What's the matter with him? He's so down in the dumps these days."

disappointed: "She was disappointed by her son's poor results at school."

E

ecstatic = extremely happy: "When he asked her to marry him she was ecstatic."

excited: "I'm excited by the new opportunities that the internet brings."

emotional = you have strong feelings (happy or sad) and you cry: "When he heard the news, he became quite emotional."

envious = when you want something that someone else has: "I'm very envious of her happiness - I wish I was happy too."

embarrassed = slightly ashamed: "I felt so embarrassed that I went bright red."

F

furious =very angry: "I was furious with him for breaking my favourite vase."

frightened: "As a child she was frightened of the dark."

G

great = very good: "I feel great today!"

H

happy: "She was happy to hear the good news."

horrified = very shocked: "I'm horrified by the amount of violence on television today."

I

irritated = annoyed: "I get so irritated when he changes TV channels without asking me first."

intrigued = being so interested in something you have to find out more: "I'm intrigued to hear about your safari in Kenya."

J

jealous = envious: "She was jealous of her sister's new toy."

jaded = tired and having no interest: "After 10 years at this company, I just feel jaded."

K

keen: "I'm keen to see your new house - I've heard lots about it."

"I'm keen on keeping fit."

L

lazy: "I can't be bothered to do anything today - I feel really lazy!"

lucky: "I'm going to play the lottery - I feel lucky today!"

let down = disappointed: "When you didn't turn up to the meeting, I felt really let down."

M

maternal = feeling like a mother: "Looking at my sister's new baby made me feel really maternal."

N

nonplussed = so surprised that you don't know what to do next: "I was so nonplussed by his announcement that I couldn't say anything."

negative = when you can only see the disadvantages: "I feel very negative about my job - the pay is awful."

O

overwhelmed = so much emotion that you don't know what to say or do: "I was overwhelmed by the offer of promotion at work."

over the moon = delighted: "She was over the moon with her new bicycle and rode it every day for a whole year."

P

positive = opposite of negative - seeing the good side of something: "She's a very positive person and never lets anything get her down."

positive = very sure: "Are you sure that's what you want? Yes - I'm positive."

R

relaxed: "I was completely relaxed after I came back from holiday."

reluctant = when you don't want to do something: "I'm reluctant to buy a new car - the one we have is fine."

S

seething = extremely angry, but hiding it: "She was seething after her boss criticised her."

sad: "It makes me sad to see all those animals in cages at the zoo."

scared = frightened: "Are you scared of heights?"

stressed = being worried or anxious about something so you can't relax: "I feel really stressed at work - I need a break."

"He was stressed out by all the travelling in his job."

T

terrific = fantastic: "I feel terrific today!"

terrible = ill or tired: "I've got a blinding headache and I feel terrible."

terrified = very scared: "She's terrified of spiders and screams whenever she sees one."

tense = not relaxed: "You look a bit tense. Did you have a bad day at work?"

U

upset = angry or unhappy: "I'm sorry you're upset - I didn't mean to be rude."

unhappy = sad: "I was unhappy to hear that I hadn't got the job."

V

victimised = to feel you are the victim of someone or something: "My boss kept criticising me and not the others, so I felt quite victimised."

W

wonderful = great: "I felt wonderful after such a relaxing weekend





نوع مطلب : Vocabulary، 
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دوشنبه 19 مهر 1389
چاپ این صفحه

عجیب‌ترین جمله در زبان انگلیسی

این جمله با کلمه ای یک حرفی آغاز می شود کلمه دوم دو حرفیست چهارم چهار حرفی... تا بیستمین کلمه بیست حرفی!!!

نویسنده این جمله یا مغز دستور زبان بوده یا خیلی بی کار:

I do not know where family doctors acquired illegibly perplexing handwriting nevertheless, extraordinary pharmaceutical intellectuality counterbalancing indecipherability, transcendentalizes intercommunications incomprehensiblenes

ترجمه جمله:

نمیدانم این دكترهای خانواده گی این دست خطهای گیج کننده را از کجا کسب میکنند. با این حال سواد پزشکی آنها غیر قابل کشف بودن این دست خط ها را جبران کرده و بر غیر قابل کشف بودن آنها (دست خط) برتری میجوید





نوع مطلب : Interesting، 
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شنبه 10 مهر 1389
چاپ این صفحه

An atheist professor of philosophy speaks to his class on the problem science has with God, The Almighty. He asks one of his new students to stand and....
Prof: So you believe in God?
Student: Absolutely, sir.
Prof: Is God good?
Student: Sure.
Prof: Is God all-powerful?
Student: Yes.
Prof: My brother died of cancer even though he prayed to God to heal him. Most of us would attempt to help others who are ill. But God didn't. How is this God good then?
Hmm? (Student is silent.)
Prof: You can't answer, can you? Let's start again, young fella. Is God good?
Student: Yes.
Prof: Is Satan good?
Student: No.
Prof: Where does Satan come from?
Student: From...God...
Prof: That's right. Tell me son, is there evil in this world?
Student: Yes.
Prof: Evil is everywhere, isn't it? And God did make everything. Correct?
Student: Yes.
Prof: So who created evil?
(Student does not answer.)
Prof: Is there sickness? Immorality? Hatred? Ugliness? All these terrible things exist in the world, don't they?
Student: Yes, sir.
Prof: So, who created them?
(Student has no answer.)
Prof: Science says you have 5 senses you use to identify and observe the world around you. Tell me, son...Have you ever seen God?
Student: No, sir.
Prof: Tell us if you have ever heard your God?
Student: No , sir.
Prof: Have you ever felt your God, tasted your God, smelled your god? Have you ever had any sensory perception of God for that matter?
Student: No, sir. I'm afraid I haven't.
Prof: Yet you still believe in Him?
Student: Yes.
Prof: According to empirical, testable, demonstrable protocol, science says your GOD doesn't exist. What do you say to that, son?
Student: Nothing. I only have my faith.
Prof: Yes. Faith. And that is the problem science has.
Student: Professor, is there such a thing as heat?
Prof: Yes.
Student: And is there such a thing as cold?
Prof: Yes.
Student: No sir. There isn't.
(The lecture theatre becomes very quiet with this turn of events.)
Student: Sir, you can have lots of heat, even more heat, superheat, mega heat, white heat, a little heat or no heat. But we don't have anything called cold. We can hit 458 degrees below zero which is no heat, but we can't go any further after that. There is no such thing as cold. Cold is only a word we use to describe the absence of heat. We cannot measure cold. Heat is energy.
Cold is not the opposite of heat, sir, just the absence of it. (There is pin-drop silence in the lecture theatre.)
Student: What about darkness, Professor? Is there such a thing as darkness?
Prof: Yes. What is night if there isn't darkness?
Student: You're wrong again, sir. Darkness is the absence of something. You can have low light, normal light, bright light, flashing light.... But if you have no light constantly, you have nothing and it's called darkness, isn't it? In reality, darkness isn't. If it were, you would be able to make darkness darker, wouldn't you?
Prof: So what is the point you are making, young man?
Student: Sir, my point is your philosophical premise is flawed.
Prof: Flawed? Can you explain how?
Student: Sir, you are working on the premise of duality. You argue there is life and then there is death, a good God and a bad God. You are viewing the concept of God as something finite, something we can measure. Sir, science can't even explain a thought. It uses electricity and magnetism, but has never seen, much less fully understood either one. To view death as the opposite of life is to be ignorant of the fact that
death cannot exist as a substantive thing. Death is not the opposite of life: just the absence of it. Now tell me, Professor. Do you teach your students that they evolved from a monkey?
Prof: If you are referring to the natural evolutionary process, yes, of course, I do.
Student: Have you ever observed evolution with your own eyes, sir?
(The Professor shakes his head with a smile, beginning to realize where the argument is going.)
Student: Since no one has ever observed the process of evolution at work and cannot even prove that this process is an on-going endeavor, are you not teaching your opinion, sir? Are you not a scientist but a preacher?
(The class is in uproar.)
Student: Is there anyone in the class who has ever seen the Professor's brain?
(The class breaks out into laughter.)
Student: Is there anyone here who has ever heard the Professor's brain, felt it, touched or smelled it?.....No one appears to have done so. So, according to the established rules of empirical, stable, demonstrable protocol, science says that you have no brain, sir. With all due respect, sir, how do we then trust your lectures, sir?
(The room is silent. The professor stares at the student, his face unfathomable.)
Prof: I guess you'll have to take them on faith, son.
Student: That is it, sir.. The link between man & god is FAITH. That is all that keeps things moving & alive.
Do you know who the student is....?

That young man was ALBERT EINSTEIN.



See the Persian Translation


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جمعه 9 مهر 1389
چاپ این صفحه

دوره آموزش IELTS با همکاری مشترک شورای بریتانیا، دانشگاه کمبریج و انجمن IELTS استرالیا تدوین، ارایه و برگزار می گردد. این سیستم در کلیه مراکـز دولتی و دانشگاهی و مهاجرتی در اکثـر کشورها قابل شناسایی می‌باشد. این سیسم جهت تعیین سطح زبان عمومی و یا آکادمیک جهت متقاضیانی که قصد ادامه تحصیل و کسب و کار در کشورهای انگیسی زبان هـمچـون آمریکا، انگلیس، کانادا، استرالیا، ایـرلنـد و نیوزیلنـد را دارند، می‌باشد.

امتحانات IELTS در زمان های مشخص در حداقل 300 مرکز مشخص در سراسر دنیا برگزار می گردد. آموزش IELTS چهار بخش مهارت های شنیداری، گفتاری، نوشتاری و مکالمه را در مقاطع عمومی و آکادمیک شامل می شود. آموزش شنیداری و مکالمه برای هر دو مقطع یکسان بوده ولی، آموزش گفتاری و نوشتاری مجزا و ویژه هر مقطع می باشد.

آموزش IELTS در مقطع آکادمیک مختص آن گروه از متقاضیانی است که قصد ادامه تحصیل در مقاطع بالاتر تحصیلی و یا فراگیری تخصص های حرفه ای را دارند، و آموزش IELTS در مقطع عمومی مختص آن گروه از متقاضیانی است که قصد یافتن شغل مناسب و کسب و کار و یا فراگیری دوره های غیر دانشگاهی در یکی از کشورهای انگلیسی زبان را دارند.





نوع مطلب : IELTS، 
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پنجشنبه 8 مهر 1389
چاپ این صفحه

The World's first crossword was devised as recently as 1913. Arthur Wynne created it for the weekly puzzle page in Fun (the eight-page comic section of the New York World).

For the Christmas edition he decided to come up with a new sort of puzzle to entertain his readers. He sketched out a diamond-shaped grid, wrote FUN (the name of the comic section) across the top squares, and filled in the rest of the grid with words. He numbered the squares and wrote definition clues for the words he had filled in.

The new puzzle proved exceedingly popular, and appeared in the newspaper every week. After a few weeks the name was changed from Word-cross to Cross-word. Wynne experimented with many different shapes, eventually settling on the rectangle. In the decades that followed, crosswords became more and more popular across the world.

Here is the world's first crossword

Fill in the small squares with words which agree with the following definitions.

2-3. What bargain hunters enjoy. 6-22. What we all should be.
4-5. A written acknowledgment. 4-26. A day dream.
6-7. Such and nothing more. 2-11. A talon.
10-11. A bird. 19-28. A pigeon.
14-15. Opposed to less. F-7. Part of your head.
18-19. What this puzzle is. 23-30. A river in Russia.
22-23. An animal of prey. 1-32. To govern.
26-27. The close of a day. 33-34. An aromatic plant.
28-29. To elude. N-8. A fist.
30-31. The plural of is. 24-31. To agree with.
8-9. To cultivate. 3-12. Part of a ship.
12-13. A bar of wood or iron. 20-29. One.
16-17. What artists learn to do. 5-27. Exchanging.
20-21. Fastened. 9-25. To sink in mud.
24-25. Found on the seashore. 13-21. A boy.
10-18. The fibre of the gomuti palm.

 



Click here for the solution to the world's first crossword


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چهارشنبه 7 مهر 1389
چاپ این صفحه

 

When one door of happiness closes

another opens

But often we look so long at the closed door

that we do not see the one which has been opened for us

Helen Keller





نوع مطلب : Beautiful sentences، 
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سه شنبه 6 مهر 1389
چاپ این صفحه

1- ایجاد شور و هیجان در فراگیری زبان

همه زبان‌آموزان دوست دارند که به خوبی انگلیسی صحبت کنند. آنها از این فکر که قادر باشند «روان» صحبت کنند و با دیگران به انگلیسی ارتباط برقرار کنند به هیجان می‌آیند. اما آنها معمولاً توجهی به خود فرآیند آموزش ندارند. در نظر بیشتر زبان‌آموزان، فراگیری زبان انگلیسی یک اجبار است - چیـزی که مجبور به انجام آن هستنـد، ولی میلی به آن ندارنـد. آنهـا در فراگیری زبان انگلیسی هیچ لذتی نمی‌بینند. بطور خلاصه، بیشتر زبان‌آموزان دوست دارند که انگلیسی صحبت کنند ولی دوست ندارند به فراگیری زبان انگلیسی مشغول باشند. این اولین و مهمترین مشکلی است که پیش روی یک زبان آموز قرار دارد، زیرا کسی که تمایلی به فراگیری یک زبان خارجی نـدارد، آن را بـه خوبی فرا نخواهـد گـرفت. اگـر شما «انگلیسی» را دوست نداشتـه باشیـد، «انگلیسی» هم شما را دوست نخواهد داشت!

اگر می‌خواهید که زبان‌آموز موفقی باشید، لازم است که خود فرآیند آموزش را هم دوست داشته باشید. لازم است که زمانی را که صرف فراگیری انگلیسی می‌کنید، به عنوان وقت تفریح یا استراحت خود به حساب آورید. به عنوان مثال، شما باید از موارد زیر لذت ببرید:

  • خواندن جملات انگلیسی و فکر کردن درباره ساختار آنها
  • فراگیری لغات جدید از یک دیکشنری
  • نوشتن یک جمله انگلیسی صحیح با کمک گرفتن از دیکشنری، کتاب گرامر و اینترنت
  • تمرین تلفظ اصوات و کلمات انگلیسی

به طور آرمانی، فراگیری زبان بایستی برای شما یک تفریح به حساب بیاید. شما باید خود را یک «زبان‌آموز» قلمداد کنید - کسی که فراگیری زبان انگلیسی را به عنوان یکی از فعالیت‌های مورد علاقه‌اش انتخاب کرده است.

 2- ایجاد اولین تغییر در زندگی

تصمیم برای فراگیری زبان انگلیسی نیازمند ایجاد تغییراتی در زندگی‌تان می‌باشد. به عنوان مثال تصمیم می‌گیرید که هر روز 30 دقیقه برای خواندن یک کتاب انگلیسی وقت بگذارید و بر این تصمیم پافشاری می‌کنید. ایجاد یک تغییر کوچک ولی دائمی در زندگی راحت نیست، مخصوصاً اگر فراگیری زبان «سرگرم کننده» به نظر نرسد. به هر حال، زبان‌آموزان باید به خاطر داشته باشند که اگر روزی 15 دقیقه به مطالعه انگلیسی بپردازند، نتیجه بهتری می‌گیرند تا اینکه مثلاً هر یک ماه یکبار، یک روز کامل را به این کار اختصاص دهند.

 3- ایجاد تغییرات دیگر در زندگی

اگر چه ایجاد اولین تغییر، خود کار دشواری است، ایجـاد تغییرات بعدی نیـز سخت است. بسیاری از زبان‌آموزان اولین گام را برمی‌دارند (مثلاً مطالعه روزانه یک کتاب بـه زبان انگلیسی) و همانجا متوقف می‌شوند. آنها خود را درگیر فعالیت‌های «انگلیسی ساز» نمی‌کنند.

یک زبان‌آموز خوب مجموعه‌ای از فعالیتها (خواندن متن، تماشای برنامه‌های زبان اصلی، تمرین تلفظ و ...) را در اختیار دارد و هر کدام را بر اساس حال و هوای خود انتخاب می‌کند. یک فعالیت به خودی خود کافی نیست، زیرا اولاً شما زودتر خسته می‌شوید و ثانیاً به شما طیفی از مهارتهای زبان ارائه می‌دهد که نوعاً بسیار محدود است. به عنوان مثال خواندن متون انگلیسی نمی‌تواند تلفظ شما را تقویت کند، اگر چه می‌تواند گرامر، دایره لغت و مهارتهای نوشتاری و درک مطلب شما را تقویت کند.





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دوشنبه 5 مهر 1389
چاپ این صفحه

سریع خوانی

معمولاً افراد هنگام مطالعه‌ی یک متن (مثلاً یک روزنامه) سعی می‌کنند با حداقل تلاش و حداکثر سرعت به مضمون اصلی مطلب پی ببرند. شاید بتوان این استراتژی را «سریع خوانی» نامید. در این استراتژی مغز تلاش می‌کند تا جای ممکن کلمات کمتری را بخواند و تنها کسری از ثانیه روی هر کلمه توقف می‌کند. ممکن است زبان‌آموزان نیز این استراتژی را برای خواندن متون انگلیسی بکار بگیرند.

حال باید دید این استراتژی (سریع خوانی) چه ویژگیهایی دارد:

·         کلمات گرامری از قبیل حروف اضافه و حروف تعریف دیده نمی‌شوند. چشم تنها روی کلماتی از قبیل اسمها، فعلها، صفات و قیدهای اصلی توقف می‌کند.

·         وجوه کلمه دیده نمی‌شود (مانند قسمت دوم یا سوم بودن یک فعل).

·         به املای دقیق کلمه دقت نمی‌شود. دانسته شده است که مغز  کل کلمه را از روی شکل آن تشخیص می‌دهد و آن را بصورت حرف به حرف تجزیه و تحلیل نمی‌کند.

·         به کلمات مشکلی که برای درک معنی کلمه ضروری نیستند توجه نمی‌شود (برای صرفه جویی در وقت به دیکشنری مراجعه نمی‌شود).

 

البته «سریع خوانی» روش بسیار خوبی برای صرفه‌جویی در وقت است. اما مشکل اینجاست که شما برای درک یک مطلب به کلمات گرامری خیلی نیاز ندارید، اما برای ساختن یک متن یا مطلب (هنگام نوشتن یا صحبت کردن) به آنها نیاز دارید. بنابراین اگر به چیزهایی مانند حروف تعریف و حروف اضافه دقت نکنید، نخواهید توانست آنها را به درستی در جملات خودتان بکار گیرید.

به همین دلیل بعضی از زبان‌آموزان یک کتاب 300 صفحه‌ای را تمام می‌کنند و همچنان با گرامر نسبتاً پایه‌ای هم مشکل داشته باشند. و باز به همین دلیل است که حروف اضافه و حروف تعریف جزو سخت‌ترین قسمتهای آموزش زبان انگلیسی محسوب می‌شوند. توصیه‌ای که در اینجا به زبان‌آموزان می‌شود این است که اگر می‌خواهید مهارتهای خروجی (=نوشتن و مکالمه) خود را افزایش دهید، باید به خودتان یاد بدهید که به کلمات گرامری توجه کنید.

 

چگونه بخوانیم؟

در اینجا چند نکته‌ی جالب و مهم برای مطالعه‌ی متن‌های انگلیسی به زبان‌آموزان توصیه می‌شود:

1- هنگام برخورد با یک چیز جالب توجه (و نه واضح) توقف کنید: مثلاً یک کلمه‌ی جدید، نحوه‌ی کاربرد یک کلمه، یک ساختار گرامری، یک حرف اضافه، یک حرف تعریف، ترتیب لغات و .... کمی وقت بگذارید و فکر کنید که چرا مثلاً در یک جمله‌ی خاص از حرف اضافه‌ی at به جای on استفاده شده است و یا چرا از زمان حال کامل استفاده شده است در حالیکه شما انتظار گذشته‌ی ساده را داشتید.

2- اگر در جمله‌ای عبارت مفیدی وجود دارد، از خودتان بپرسید: آیا خودم می‌توانم یک عبارت مشابه بسازم؟ آیا می‌توانید مثلاً حروف اضافه، حروف تعریف و زمانهای صحیح را بکار ببرید؟ اگر مطمئن نیستید، سعی کنید یک عبارت مشابه را با صدای بلند و یا در ذهنتان بگویید. هدف این است که آن عبارت را در ذهنتان نگه دارید.

3- هر جا لازم است (و یا اگر صرفاً دوست دارید)، از دیکشنری استفاده کنید تا به تعاریف کلمات و نیز به جملات نمونه‌ی بیشتری دست پیدا کنید. (معرفی دیکشنری)

4- جملات و عبارتهای مفید و کاربردی را در دفتر یادداشت خود (و یا در نرم‌افزارهایی مانند Supermemo) وارد کنید. بدین ترتیب اطمینان خواهید یافت که در آینده باز هم آنها را مرور خواهید کرد.

 

اگر دوست ندارید هنگام خواندن توقف کنید (تا مثلاً یک کلمه را در دیکشنری جستجو کنید)، می‌توانید زیر جملات جالب و مفید خط بکشید تا بعداً به آنها رسیدگی کنید.

نکته‌ی مهم دیگری که باید به آنها توجه کنید این است که شما مجبور نیستید که همیشه از استراتژی بالا استفاده کنید. خواندن به این روش نسبتاً خسته کننده است، بنابراین اگر بعد از یک مطالعه‌ی طولانی خسته هستید، این روش را به کار نبرید. همچنین برای هر جمله به یک اندازه وقت صرف نکنید. در بسیاری از جملات، عبارتها و ساختارهایی که برای جمله‌سازی شما مفید باشند وجود ندارد.





نوع مطلب : مقالات آموزشی، 
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یکشنبه 4 مهر 1389
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When we speak, we use much more than just words. We also communicate with our face, our hands, and even our own body. This kind of communication can be called "body language" or "non-verbal communication". Non-verbal communication not only includes how we move our body, but also hand gestures, facial expressions including eye contact, and how we use our voice. Psychologists estimate that between 60% and 80% of all of our communication with other people is non-verbal. We communicate a wide range of information non-verbally. We also show our feelings, attitudes, moods, hopes and wishes far better with non-verbal language than with words.

Not only is a large QUANTITY of communication non-verbal in nature, but the QUALITY is high as well. For example, if a person says something positive while his face looks negative, which are we more likely to believe? In most cases, we will believe the non-verbal facial expression. In the end, his words will not succeed in communicating his message. If we want to succeed in our everyday conversations, we really must learn to "speak" with our body well!

Let me begin by giving you some general advice. The main thing is to relax and be natural. Trying too hard to use "body language" will make you seem a bit strange. Instead, you should allow your body language to naturally follow your words. If you say something positive, then your face, body and hands should show it too. If you are expressing a sad or worried feeling, then your face, body and hands should change with that feeling. As you think about it more and consider how you can use your body to communicate, you will become more and more natural.

More specifically, let's talk about hand gestures. Using our hands, we can emphasize our main points, remind our listener how many main points we have, and let our listener know when we are changing topics. A dramatic movement of the hand or moving our hands wide apart can signal how important something is. We can even use two fingers, either close together or far apart, to show how big something is. To show VERY strong feeling we could clap our hands together loudly or make a fist (put our fingers in a ball as though we want to hit someone) and hit a table or desk. To show that we welcome someone, on the other hand, we can hold our hands out with the palms up, and maybe move them towards a chair to invite someone to sit next to us.

Of course, we can also use our fingers to count, but be careful. People in some countries do not count the same way as in China. In France, for example, people do not count "one" by holding up their first finger, called the "index finger". Instead, they hold up their thumb. In Japan, some people put their thumb DOWN (with the four fingers up) to mean "one"! This can create confusion sometimes, so be sure not to use only non-verbal communication. Use words too, so that your listener will be sure to understand you.

Some hand gestures that are popular are waving to someone as a greeting or holding your index finger and thumb into a circle to mean "okay". However, there are some countries where these can have bad meanings! It's important to be careful when using certain common gestures. Don't assume that everyone in the world understands one gesture in the same way. Still, you can use basic gestures most of the time, then when you see a strange reaction from your listener, you can make sure to emphasize your real meaning by using words and a different hand movement.

Facial expressions are a very common way that we use to communicate every day. When speaking English, it's generally good to smile at your listener from time to time, especially when he or she has made an interesting comment. Also nod your head up and down to show you are really interested. From time to time, you can add a sound of agreement, such as "Uh huh" or even just "mmmm", to show you are listening. Above all, it is important to maintain eye contact while listening. Sometimes it is okay to move your eyes away when you are speaking, because you do have to think about what you want to say. However the listener should almost always look at the speaker without moving the eyes away (without "averting" the eyes).

If you are speaking to someone while standing, it is important to stand neither too close nor too far from the speaker. Stand at a position that is comfortable for both of you. Again, though, you must be careful when talking to people from different countries. People from some southern European countries, such as France or Spain, often stand closer together when speaking than do Chinese people. And people from Arab countries such as Saudi Arabia stand even closer! You do not always have to adapt your behavior when you meet people from around the world, but you should be aware of potential misunderstandings.

If, instead of standing, you are speaking to someone while talking, you can show your friendliness and "openness" by leaning a little bit toward the speaker. Try to avoid folding your arms in front of your chest. Many people consider folding your arms as a cold, "protective" gesture. Instead, you could have your hands on your knees, or one hand on your knee and the other at your side. You can fold your arms sometimes if you wish, but don't hold them there for a long time. As long as your hands move from time to time, the listener will not think that you are unfriendly.

Besides all of the obvious physical ways to communicate non-verbally, we have our voice. We use "intonation", loudness and "pitch" (how high or low our voice sounds) to change our meaning. Even when our voice does not make an actual word, it still can communicate feeling and attitude. Combined with the words we use, our voice can be a very powerful way to express what we mean. A strong voice can communicate confidence while a quiet voice communicates intimacy or some secret message. A loud, high pitched voice (similar to a girl screaming) can communicate nervousness or excitement, while a deep voice might mean we are tired or not enthusiastic.

Body language is one of the basic skills that all students need.





نوع مطلب : مقالات آموزشی، 
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شنبه 3 مهر 1389
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